Attribution link structure and parameters

At a glance: Attribution links report user activity related to clicks and mobile ad impressions to AppsFlyer. Clicking on an attribution link, redirects the user to download the app and a copy of the URL clicked is sent to AppsFlyer. In AppsFlyer, portions of the link are used to populate raw data reports. 

AppsFlyer base attribution link

The base attribution link contains the minimum information to record the click and redirect the user to download the app. Additional parameters may be added to the link after the ? character, to record extra information.{app_id}?pid={media_source}

The base attribution link includes the {App_id}, which is the Application ID for Apple iTunes/App Store app, or the package name for Google Play, as well as the paid (media source). This is the minimum requirement for an attribution link.

Note: For Amazon apps, use the bundle/package name (versus the ASIN).


The following attribution link for the com.greatapp app uses several parameters including Publisher ID (pid), campaign name (c) and adset ID (af_adset_id). See the table below for the full list of supported attribution link parameters and their explanations.

Attribution link parameters

The following parameters are available for use within the generated attribution link.

The number in the Field type column is the character limit of the parameter value. Find more about limitations on the length of parameter values here.

Parameters Raw-data field Name Description

Field type

pid Media Source Provided by AppsFlyer for integrated partners and should not be changed. More details.

String 50

c Campaign Provided by the advertiser/publisher. Campaign names that exceed 100 characters in length are displayed on the dashboard as "c_name_exceeded_max_length"

String 100



  • Agency Account Name enables attributing installs to the agency
  • Caution: Don't use this parameter before ensuring that Agency Permissions are enabled

String 50


Marketing Partner

  • Enable sending of postbacks to publisher marketing partners per install.
  • Note: Currently this parameter is relevant only for Pinterest Marketing Partners.




Ad network unique click identifier



Site ID

Ad Network publisher ID

String 24


Sub Site ID

Ad Sub-Network/Publisher ID

String 50


Campaign ID

Provided by the advertiser/publisher

String 24



  • Provided by the advertiser/publisher.
  • Adset is an intermediate level in the hierarchy between Campaign and Ad. See more

String 100


Adset ID

Provided by the advertiser/publisher

String 24



Ad Name (see more) provided by the advertiser/publisher

String 100


Ad ID Provided by the advertiser/publisher

String 24


Ad Type

Ad Type use the following naming convention:

  • text: an ad unit containing only text, e.g. a search result
  • banner: a basic format that appears at the top or bottom of the device screen
  • interstitial: a full-page ad that appears during breaks in the current experience
  • video: a standard video, i.e. non-rewarded
  • rewarded_video: an ad unit offering in-app rewards in exchange for watching a video
  • playable: an ad unit containing an interactive preview of the app experience
  • sponsored_content: a link included in a piece of sponsored content, like an advertorial article
  • audio: an audio ad

String 24


Lookback Window for Click Attribution. This window's duration is the maximum CTIT (Click Time to Install) for the new user to be attributed to the source displaying the ad/link.

  • Configurable number of days for the lookback click attribution period. Available parameter values: 1d - 30d (days) OR 1h-23h (hours). The default value is 7d.
  • The lookback window can be customized for OneLinks and SRNs.

Note: Only affects click URLs and not impression URLs.

3 char max


Lookback Window for View-through Attribution

  • Configurable number of days for the lookback view-through attribution period. Available parameter values: 1h - 48h (hours) OR 1d - 7d (days). The default is 1d.
  • The lookback window can be customized for SRNs.

Note: Only affects impression URLs and not click URLs

3 char max



The media source channel through which the ads are distributed, e.g., UAC_Search, UAC_Display, Instagram, Facebook Audience Network etc.

Dynamic Enum. String 20



Keywords list for text-targeted campaigns

String 100


Cost model

  • Cost model, CPI (default) is currently the only supported model, when reporting cost by click, which populates cost value in AppsFlyer's aggregated data reports.
  • Where possible report cost by API. In cases where cost is reported by on the link and by API - API has priority.  

String 20


Cost currency

  • 3 letter currency code compliant with ISO-4217. For example, USD, ZAR, EUR
  • [Default]: USD

Enum. 3 char 


Cost value

  • Cost value in using cost currency.
  • Up to 4 digits after the decimal point.
  • Set ONLY numerical digits (use a decimal point if needed) Example: "56", "2.85"

String 20


(n=1-5) example: af_sub1

Sub Param [n]

Optional custom parameter defined by the advertiser. For more information about the usage of these parameters check the FAQs section.

String 100

af_r N/A Redirect users to the specified URL for both platforms (Android and iOS)  
af_web_dp N/A URL to redirect desktop (for example, Windows or Mac) users to a different web page than configured in the OneLink template. Use this to keep attribution data of desktop users on other platforms (e.g. Google Analytics or Omniture)  
af_dp N/A The fallback value to launch the app, to be used if the Universal Link or Android App Link method fails, and for Android users below 6.0. It should only point to the base path, i.e. the default activity.  
af_force_deeplink N/A Force deep linking into the activity specified in af_dp value  
af_ref N/A
Ad networks working with S2S clicks can send a unique referrer value using the following parameter: &af_ref=ReferrerValue
The af_ref value must consist of a unique value, structured as follows:
Example: af_ref=networkname_123456789ABCDEF
The network name can be any valid string. It can be networkname_int or just networkname.
AppsFlyer may use this parameter for attribution in Android devices. AppsFlyer doesn't use this parameter for attribution in iOS or Windows devices.
is_incentivized true/false
Incentivized or non-incentivized campaigns
af_param_forwarding When set to false,  parameters that are on the attribution link are not forwarded to the redirected page
Use this for a cleaner looking URL in the redirected page, or if attribution link parameters might cause issues due to query parameter handling on the redirected page
Attribution link parametersUA and retargeting
Parameters Display Name Description

Field type


Is Retargeting Campaign? The click URL of all retargeting campaigns must include &is_retargeting=true.
If the parameter is not included or its value is "false" the campaign is considered as a regular user acquisition campaign.

Enum 5 char


Re-engagement Window

Change the re-engagement attribution window by adding this parameter to the attribution link.

The possible window range options are:

  • Days: 1-90  or Hours 1-36
  • Lifetime: This means the re-engagement window is unlimited. Example: &af_reengagement_window=lifetime

Default value: 30 days

Example: &af_reengagement_window=30d sets the re-engagement window to 30 days.

3 char max

Attribution link parameters—retargeting only

Ad type parameters

Depending on the ad type, you can also send the relevant viewability parameter detailing the specifications of the engagement. Below is a list of possible values for “af_ad_type” along with the expected viewability parameters.

Parameter Value format Description
af_video_total_length   The total possible duration of the video
af_video_played_length   How much of the video was viewed
af_playable_played_length   How long the playable element was played once fully loaded
af_ad_time_viewed   How long the ad unit was visible on the screen
af_ad_displayed_percent   The maximum percentage of the ad unit that was visible on the device screen
af_audio_total_length   The total possible duration of the audio
af_audio_played_length   How much of the audio was heard

Android-specific parameters

Parameter Display Name Description

Field type


Advertising ID

Google Advertising ID - Requires ad network support

40 char max



Google Advertising ID hashed with SHA1 - Requires ad network support




Google Advertising ID hashed with MD5 - Requires ad network support

Supported with installs and re-attributions only


Android ID

Device Android_id - Requires ad network support

20 char max



Device Android_id hashed with SHA1 - Requires ad network support




Device Android_id hashed with MD5 - Requires ad network support

Supported with installs and re-attributions only



Device IMEI ID




Device IMEI ID hashed with SHA1 - Requires ad network support




Device IMEI ID hashed with MD5 - Requires ad network support




Open Anonymous Device Identifier

Available as of Android SDK version 4.10.3



Open Anonymous Device Identifier hashed with SHA1 - Requires ad network support

Available as of Android SDK version 4.10.3


N/A Open Anonymous Device Identifier hashed with MD5 - Requires ad network support Available as of Android SDK version 4.10.3



Redirect Android users to a different URL than the app's page on Google Play. Use for out-of- store apps




Used for desktop to mobile attribution - email hashed with SHA1. Requires ad network support




Amazon's Fire Advertising ID


iOS Specific Parameters

Parameters Display Name Description

Field type



Apple Advertiser ID - should be provided using upper case format. Requires ad network support

40 char max


Redirect iOS (iPhone or iPad) users to a different URL than the app's page on iTunes

Use this for landing page redirections




Supply fallback URL for users of iOS 10.3 users




Apple Advertiser ID hashed with SHA1. Requires ad network support




Device mac address. Requires ad network support




Device mac address hashed with SHA1. Requires ad network support



All parameters are available in the Installation Report and the Analytics, Reports and APIs.

Custom parameters

In addition to default, Android specific and iOS specific parameters, you can also specify custom parameters. These custom parameters can help you if you wish to customize user experience and content according to the attribution link that leads to an install.

You can append custom parameters to the attribution link in the format parameter=value. For example:

Two important things to know about custom parameters:

Why is PID (publisher ID) the Most Important Parameter?

Among all available attribution link parameters PID stands out as the only parameter that MUST be included in every attribution link.

PID, Publisher ID, is actually the media source name. This is the primary field for attributing the install to its source.

Each one of AppsFlyer's Integrated Partners has its own unique PID value, which ends with "_int". When using Custom Attribution Links you can set any PID name you'd like, as long as it's not reserved by integrated partners.

Here are some examples of important integrated publisher IDs: organic, googleadwords_int (Google AdWords), Facebook ads, Twitter. You can use any name for non-integrated sources like email, sms or mail pigeons.

Avoid these common pid issues

Consider the following PID rules when using this parameter:

1. Always include PID in your attribution links

Without the PID on the attribution link the user is automatically attributed to a "None" media source and the original installation source is gone.

2. For Custom Sources Use non-integrated partner PIDs
For each integrated source use only the designated PID for correct attribution of its installs. For any custom media source, such as email, SMS or even viral unpaid posts on Facebook use other, non-integrated PID values.
3. Use only legal characters
If the PID parameter in the Attribution Link contains one of the following characters ":<>*&?/" - the click/install appears in the dashboard under invalid_media_source_name.


Avoid using white spaces in the PID value, or make sure to URL encode your attribution links before using them.

Levels of data granularity

You can use up to four URL parameters to reach deep dive into your ads performance.

Using all 4 parameters on all your active attribution links enables you to:

  • Attribute all user installs and events to specific ads
  • Drill down and compare performance of all your ads per ad set, per campaign and per media source on aggregated reports to optimize on every level
  • Compare all of your ads across all media sources on the raw data reports and Pivot table

The parameters are:

  1. Media source (pid=)
  2. campaign name (c=)
  3. Ad set (af_adset=)
  4. Ad name (af_ad=)


The following attribution link uses 4 levels of granularity to record the "cashmere" ad in the "coats" ad set in the "winter" campaign running on the integrated "networkx" media source.


Should I use lower or upper case letters for parameters

You can use either but you must be consistent. If you set a custom parameter with upper or lower case characters, make sure to always use that parameter.

For example, if you set pid=MyMediaSource make sure to always use it. If you use pid=MyMediaSource on one attribution link and pid=mymediasource on another, discrepancies in data might occur. The same goes for any other param that you set on the attribution link.

Is AppsFlyer's attribution link dynamic or static?

AppsFlyer's attribution links are not trackers, and could either be dynamic or static.
How can you tell if a link is dynamic or static?
If the attribution link contains parameters, it's a long pre-defined attribution link, and therefore static.
Only shortened URLs, used for custom attribution links, are dynamic.
This means that once you start using an attribution Link for an integrated partner, or a long URL for owned media, it would not change for any leads engaging with it, even if you change the attribution link values on AppsFlyer's dashboard. For the change to take place, you need to use the new long URL going forward.
On the other hand, shortened URLs for owned media, don't directly contain parameters. When a lead engages with an AppsFlyer's shortened URL, the lead is redirected to AppsFlyer and the current set parameters take place dynamically.

What is this Play Store error message?

If you ever encounter the following error message in the Play Store after following an attribution Link:


This is because the attribution link includes a # character. For example:

Usually, these characters are in the link because they are macros, and are dynamically replaced by a value, so it is not a really big problem and you can ignore the message.

What are subscriber parameters good for?

The Subscriber Parameters, i.e. af_sub1 through af_sub5 can be used to record any useful KPIs. These parameters get parsed and appear in the raw data report, which makes them very handy for performing data aggregation or filtering.


A hail ride app, Luber, has creatives with 3 color templates: blue, yellow and red. Luber's mobile marketer, Linda, wants to test which color template brings in more installs. To do so she adds &af_sub3=blue in the attribution links of all the blue ads across ALL non-SRN media sources. The same is done for the yellow and red ads as well. With this information parsed and appearing in the raw data reports, Linda is able to analyze the success of the different colored ads, and pick the best converting one.

What is the maximum length for a campaign name?

AppsFlyer limits the campaign name length in the attribution link URL to 100 characters. If the character limit is exceeded, the campaign name is changed to the following string: c_name_exceeded_max_length


Video: Noam Gohary from Playtika reveals the 3 best methods for optimizing your link structure and data.

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