Attribution link structure and parameters

At a glance:  Learn about the AppsFlyer attribution link structure and parameters.


Attribution links allow advertisers to collect data about user engagement with an ad. Attribution links are placed behind ads and notify AppsFlyer when users engage with an ad. The engagement can occur via a click on an ad or when a user views an ad impression. A copy of the attribution URL is sent to AppsFlyer.

Attribution links are generated using OneLink or a single-platform link.

  OneLink (multi-platform link) Single-platform link

Description and when to use

Use when:

  • You want a single link for all platforms.
  • Deep linking capabilities are required.
  • You want to use Android App Links or iOS Universal Links to open the app.

Learn more about OneLink

Use when:

  • You only use a single platform. For example, Android and not iOS.
  • You only use URI schemes to open the app.

Learn more on how to set up an integrated partner


OneLink template


Mandatory information

Base URL


Unique identifier

Template ID


URL structure https://{subdomain}


Attribution link parameters

  • The parameters listed are available for use in the attribution link.
  • The value field type column is the character limit of the parameter value. Find more about limitations on the length of parameter values here.

The following table can be downloaded as a .csv file.

Parameter Display name in raw data Description

Field type and length

pid Media Source Uniquely identifies an AppsFlyer integrated partner. Don't change it. More details.

String 150

c Campaign Provided by the advertiser/publisher. Campaign names that exceed 100 characters in length are displayed on the dashboard as "c_name_exceeded_max_length"

String 100



  • Agency Account Name enables attributing installs to the agency
  • Caution: Don't use this parameter before ensuring that Agency Permissions are enabled

String 50


  • Enable sending of postbacks to publisher marketing partners per install.
  • Note: Currently, this parameter is relevant only for Pinterest Marketing Partners.




Ad network unique click identifier



Site ID

  • Unique ID that identifies the publisher that displays the ad. Learn more

String 24


Sub Site ID

  • Ad sub-network/Publisher ID. 
  • If in addition to the main publisher (site ID), there is a sub-publisher, or you want to include additional info, such as ad type/placement within the app, like banner, interstitial, video, etc. use af_sub_siteid. For example: af_sub_siteid =ABCD_4567

String 50


Campaign ID

Provided by the advertiser/publisher

String 24



  • Provided by the advertiser/publisher.
  • Adset is an intermediate level in the hierarchy between Campaign and Ad. See more

String 100


Adset ID

Provided by the advertiser/publisher

String 24



Ad Name (see more) provided by the advertiser/publisher

String 100


Ad ID Provided by the advertiser/publisher

String 24


Ad type

 Use the following naming convention:

  • text: an ad unit containing only text, for example a search result
  • banner: a basic format that appears at the top or bottom of the device screen
  • interstitial: a full-page ad that appears during breaks in the current experience
  • video: a standard video, that is non-rewarded
  • rewarded_video: an ad unit offering in-app rewards in exchange for watching a video
  • playable: an ad unit containing an interactive preview of the app experience
  • sponsored_content: a link included in a piece of sponsored content, like an advertorial article
  • audio: an audio ad

String 24


Attribution lookback window

  • Lookback Window for Click Attribution. This window's duration is the maximum CTIT (Click Time to Install) for the new user to be attributed to the source displaying the ad/link.
  • Configurable number of days for the lookback click attribution period. Available parameter values: 1d - 30d (days) OR 1h-23h (hours). The default value is 7d.
  • The lookback window can be customized for OneLinks and SRNs.

Note: Only affects click URLs and not impression URLs.

3 char max



  • Configurable number of hours for the lookback view-through attribution period. Available parameter values: 1h - 24h (hours). The default is 24h.
  • The lookback window can be customized for SRNs.

Note: Only affects impression URLs and not click URLs

3 char max



The media source channel through which the ads are distributed, for example, UAC_Search, UAC_Display, Instagram, Facebook Audience Network, etc.

Dynamic Enum. String 20



Keywords list for text-targeted campaigns

String 100


Cost model

  • Cost model, CPI (default) is currently the only supported model when reporting cost by click, which populates cost value in AppsFlyer aggregated data reports.
  • Where possible, report cost by API. In cases where cost is reported by on the link and by API - API has priority.

String 20


Cost currency

  • 3 letter currency code compliant with ISO-4217. For example, USD, ZAR, EUR
  • [Default]: USD

Enum. 3 char 


Cost value

  • Cost value in using cost currency.
  • Up to 4 digits after the decimal point.
  • Set ONLY numerical digits (use a decimal point if needed) Example: "56", "2.85"

String 20


(n=1-5) example: af_sub1

Sub param [n]

Optional custom parameter defined by the advertiser. For more information about the usage of these parameters, check the FAQ section.

String 100

af_r N/A

Used in single-platform links to redirect users to the specified URL for both platforms (Android and iOS).


  • Don't use in OneLink links.
  • If you have an active Redirect allowlist, ensure the domain of this URL is in the list.
af_web_dp N/A

URL to redirect desktop (for example, Windows or Mac) users to a different web page than configured in the OneLink template. Use this to keep attribution data of desktop users on other platforms (for example, Google Analytics or Omniture)

Note: If you have an active Redirect allowlist, ensure the domain of this URL is in the list.

af_dp N/A The URI scheme fallback value to launch the app, to be used if the Universal Link or Android App Link method fails, and for Android users below 6.0. It should only point to the base path, i.e. the default activity.  
af_force_deeplink N/A Force deep linking into the activity specified in af_dp value  
af_ref N/A
Ad networks working with S2S clicks can send a unique referrer value using the following parameter: &af_ref=ReferrerValue
The af_ref value must consist of a unique value, structured as follows:
Example: af_ref=networkname_123456789ABCDEF
The network name can be any valid string. It can be networkname_int or just network name.
AppsFlyer may use this parameter for attribution in Android devices. AppsFlyer doesn't use this parameter for attribution in iOS or Windows devices.
is_incentivized N/A
Boolean: true/false
Incentivized or non-incentivized campaigns
  • When set to false, parameters that are on the attribution link are not forwarded to the redirected page.
  • Use this for a cleaner looking URL in the redirected page, or if attribution link parameters might cause issues due to query parameter handling on the redirected page.
af_os OS version [For iOS only] The device operating system version  
af_model iOS model type

[For iOS only] The device model. Values permitted:

  • iphone (all lower case)
  • ipad (all lower case) 
af_media_type Media type

Placement of the ad carrying the link as follows:

  • app: The link is available via an app
  • web: The link is available within a mobile website
deep_link_sub1-10 N/A

Additional deep link values. Developers implement the desired behavior of the values in the code.

deep_link_value N/A

The name for the specific in-app content that users will be directed to. Developers implement the desired behavior of the deep_link_value in the code. 

af_og_title N/A

When a link is posted to social media, open graph (OG) title will generate a preview of the title.

String 40
af_og_description N/A

When a link is posted to social media, open graph (OG) description will generate a preview of the description.

String 300
af_og_image N/A

When a link is posted to social media, open graph (OG) image will generate a preview of the image.

Attribution link parameters—UA and retargeting
Parameter Display name in raw data Description

Field type and width


Is Retargeting (campaign)  The click URL of all retargeting campaigns must include &is_retargeting=true.
If the parameter is not included or its value is "false," the campaign is considered as a regular user acquisition campaign.

Enum 5 char


Re-engagement window

Change the re-engagement attribution window by adding this parameter to the attribution link.

The possible window range options are:

  • Days: 1-90 or Hours 1-36
  • Lifetime: This means the re-engagement window is unlimited. Example: &af_reengagement_window=lifetime

Default value: 30 days

Example: &af_reengagement_window=30d sets the re-engagement window to 30 days.


Attribution link parameters—retargeting only

Ad type parameters

Depending on the ad type, you can also send the relevant viewability parameter detailing the specifications of the engagement. Below is a list of possible values for “af_ad_type” along with the expected viewability parameters.

Parameter Value format Description
af_video_total_length seconds The total possible duration of the video
af_video_played_length seconds How much of the video was viewed
af_playable_played_length seconds How long the playable element was played once fully loaded
af_ad_time_viewed seconds How long the ad unit was visible on the screen
af_ad_displayed_percent % The maximum percentage of the ad unit that was visible on the device screen
af_audio_total_length seconds The total possible duration of the audio
af_audio_played_length seconds How much of the audio was heard
Ad type (af_ad_type) 

Android-specific parameters

Parameter Display name in raw data Description

Field type


Advertising ID

Google Advertising ID - Requires ad network support

40 char max



Google Advertising ID hashed with SHA1 - Requires ad network support




Google Advertising ID hashed with MD5 - Requires ad network support

Supported with installs and re-attributions only


Android ID

Device Android_id - Requires ad network support

20 char max



Device Android_id hashed with SHA1 - Requires ad network support




Device Android_id hashed with MD5 - Requires ad network support

Supported with installs and re-attributions only



Device IMEI ID




Device IMEI ID hashed with SHA1 - Requires ad network support




Device IMEI ID hashed with MD5 - Requires ad network support




Open Anonymous Device Identifier

Available as of Android SDK version 4.10.3



Open Anonymous Device Identifier hashed with SHA1 - Requires ad network support

Available as of Android SDK version 4.10.3


N/A Open Anonymous Device Identifier hashed with MD5 - Requires ad network support Available as of Android SDK version 4.10.3



Redirect Android users to a different URL than the app page on Google Play. Use for third-party app stores.

Note: If you have an active Redirect allowlist, ensure the domain of this URL is in the list.




Used for desktop to mobile attribution - email hashed with SHA1. Requires ad network support




Amazon Fire Advertising ID


Android-specific parameters

iOS specific parameters

Parameters Display Name Description



Use upper case. Requires ad network support

Field type: 40 char max


IDFV Use upper case. 


Redirect iOS (iPhone or iPad) users to a different URL than the app page on iTunes

Use this for landing page redirections.

Note: If you have an active Redirect allowlist, ensure the domain of this URL is in the list.


Custom product page ID (ppid)

af_ios_fallback [deprecated]


Deprecated: Users are redirected based on the iOS URI scheme flow



IDFA hashed with SHA1. Requires ad network support



IDFV hashed with SHA1



Device mac address. Requires ad network support



IDFV hashed with MD5



Device mac address hashed with SHA1. Requires ad network support


All parameters are available in the Install report and the Analytics, Reports, and APIs.

Custom parameters

In addition to default Android-specific and iOS-specific parameters, you can also specify custom parameters. These custom parameters can help you if you wish to customize the user experience and content according to the attribution link that leads to an install.

You can append custom parameters to the attribution link in the format parameter=value. For example:

Two important things to know about custom parameters:

Partner ID (PID) parameter

Among all available attribution link parameters, PID is mandatory. The PID is the unique identifier of the media source allocated by AppsFlyer. 

Each integrated partner has their own unique PID value. The PID ends with the _int suffix. When using OneLink links you can set the PID to any value you prefer, as long as it's not reserved by an integrated partner. To avoid a conflict, don't use the _int suffix. 

Examples of important integrated publisher IDs: organic, googleadwords_int (Google AdWords), Facebook ads, and Twitter. You can use any name for non-integrated sources like email, SMS, or mail pigeons.

Avoid common PID issues

  • Always include PID in your attribution links. Without the PID on the attribution link, the user is automatically attributed to a "None" media source and the original installation source is gone.
  • For Custom Sources, use non-integrated partner PIDs. For each integrated source, use only the designated PID for the correct attribution of its installs. For any custom media source, such as email, SMS, or even viral unpaid posts on Facebook use other, non-integrated PID values.
  • Use only legal characters. If the PID parameter in the Attribution Link contains one of the following characters ":<>*&?/" - the click/install appears in the dashboard under invalid_media_source_name.


Avoid using white spaces in the PID value, or make sure to URL encode your attribution links before using them.

Site ID parameter

The site ID is the unique identifier of the publisher serving the ad. In other words, the website or app displaying the ad. Ad networks allocate unique site IDs for each publisher. 

This ID is included in the af_siteid parameter passed to AppsFlyer in the attribution link and is made available via the various dashboards, reporting options, and postbacks from AppsFlyer. 

The site ID must be passed to AppsFlyer in the attribution link because it:

  • Provides clarity and transparency about the publisher
  • Is used by AppsFlyer to identify and eliminate fraudulent publishers, and other traffic clusters.

The site ID parameter only includes the ID of the publisher that serves the ad.

To include additional information, such as ad type, placement, or both within the app, for example, banner, interstitial, or video, use the sub-site ID parameter.


The following attribution link includes:

  • af_siteid (site ID): Publisher ID
  • af_sub_siteid (sub-site ID): Additional ID info (in this case, an affiliate source and ad type placement){clickid}&advertising_id={gaid}&af_siteid=1234&af_sub_siteid=ABCD_4567

In the example link:

  • 1234 = Publisher ID
  • ABCD = Affiliate source (sub-publisher) that the publisher is working with
  • 4567 = Ad type placement within the app, such as banner, interstitial, or video

FAQ: Why does traffic result in many blocked installs?

Blocked installs can be due to the following:

  • Missing site ID: The af_siteid parameter is empty in the click URL. Engagements sent with an empty Site ID signify either a technical issue or an intentional attempt to bypass fraud detection mechanisms.
  • Multiple site IDs: The same publisher is sent on multiple click URLs, using different site IDs. This is considered fraudulent behavior that masks the real publisher activity and is often associated with click flooding.
  • Site ID formatted incorrectly: Sending the wrong format, combined with other fraud indications, could result in blocking not only the specific publisher, but also of a higher cluster level, and might impact greater volumes of the partner activity.

To avoid blocked installs, make sure you send a single site ID parameter per publisher, as shown in the example.

Levels of data granularity

You can use up to four URL parameters to deep dive into your ads' performance.

Using all 4 parameters on all your active attribution links enables you to:

  • Attribute all user installs and events to specific ads
  • Drill down and compare the performance of all your ads per ad set, per campaign, and per media source on aggregated reports to optimize on every level
  • Compare all of your ads across all media sources on the raw data reports and Pivot table

The parameters are:

  • Media source (pid=)
  • campaign name (c=)
  • Ad set (af_adset=)
  • Ad name (af_ad=)


The following attribution link uses 4 levels of granularity to record the "cashmere" ad in the "coats" ad set in the "winter" campaign running on the integrated "network" media source.

Traits and limitations

Traits and limitations
Trait Remarks
Special characters
  • The following special characters are not allowed in parameter or values: ;, *, !, @, #, ?, $, ^, :, &, ~, `, =, +, ’, >, <, /, {, }, %
URL character limit
  • Total URL length must not exceed 2000 characters


Should I use lower or upper case letters for parameters

You can use either, but you must be consistent. If you set a custom parameter with upper or lower case characters, make sure always to use that parameter.

For example, if you set pid=MyMediaSource, make sure always to use it. If you use pid=MyMediaSource on one attribution link and pid=mymediasource on another, discrepancies in data might occur. The same goes for any other param that you set on the attribution link.

Is the AppsFlyer attribution link dynamic or static?

Attribution links can be dynamic or static.
How can you tell if a link is dynamic or static?
If the attribution link contains parameters, it's a long pre-defined attribution link, and therefore static.
Only short URLs (for example,, used for custom attribution links, are dynamic.
This means that once you start using an attribution link for an integrated partner, or a long URL for owned media, it would not change for any leads engaging with it, even if you change the attribution link values in the AppsFlyer dashboard. For the change to take place, you must use the new long URL going forward.
On the other hand, short URLs for owned media, don't directly contain parameters. When a lead engages with an AppsFlyer short URL, the lead is redirected to AppsFlyer and the current set parameters take place dynamically.

What is this Play Store error message?

If you ever encounter the following error message in the Play Store after following an attribution Link:


This is because the attribution link includes a # character. For example:

Usually, these characters are in the link because they are macros, and are dynamically replaced by a value, so it is not a really big problem and you can ignore the message.

What are subscriber parameters good for?

The Subscriber Parameters, meaning af_sub1, af_sub2, ..., af_sub_5 can be used to record any useful KPIs. These parameters get parsed and appear in the raw data report, which makes them very handy for performing data aggregation or filtering.


A hail ride app, Luber, has creatives with 3 color templates: blue, yellow, and red. Luber's mobile marketer, Linda, wants to test which color template brings in more installs. To do so she adds &af_sub3=blue in the attribution links of all the blue ads across ALL non-SRN media sources. The same is done for the yellow and red ads as well. With this information parsed and appearing in the raw data reports, Linda is able to analyze the success of the different colored ads and pick the best converting one.

What is the maximum length for a campaign name?

AppsFlyer limits the campaign name length in the attribution link URL to 100 characters. If the character limit is exceeded, the campaign name is changed to the following string: c_name_exceeded_max_length


Video: Noam Gohary from Playtika reveals the 3 best methods for optimizing your link structure and data.